# 线性代数网课代修|机器学习代写 machine learning代考|BMS59

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• 数值分析
• 高等线性代数
• 矩阵论
• 优化理论
• 线性规划
• 逼近论

## 线性代数作业代写linear algebra代考|MALIGNANT-ASSOCIATED CHANGES IN BUCCAL EPITHELIUM

The first reports on malignancy-associated changes (MAC) occurred in the 1960 s, when the content of X-chromatin in somatic cells was widely studied and its lability was revealed during various functional changes in the body and general somatic pathology. In the presence of a tumor in the body, there are significant changes in the content of X-chromatin in the buccal epithelium and neutrophils of peripheral blood. It was shown that changes in the number of cells with $\mathrm{X}$-chromatin are caused by disorders of the functional state of the heterocyclic X-chromosome.

Of particular interest are works showing changes in the epitheliocytes of the buccal epithelium in patients with tumors. Thus, in the $1960 \mathrm{~s} \mathrm{H}$. Nieburgs and his co-authors (Nieburgs et al. 1962, Nieburgs 1968) reported a characteristic redistribution of chromatin masses in somatic cells in $77 %$ of cancer patients and called these changes tumor-associated changes. The latter were characterized by an increase in the size of the nuclei of epitheliocytes, an increase in the size of the zones of “bounded” chromatin, which were surrounded by light zones. The same changes were observed in the cells of the liver, kidneys and other organs. In the paper (Obrapalska et al. 1973) it was reported that MAC was observed in the buccal epithelium of $74 %$ of patients with malignant tumors. An increase in the content of DNA in the nuclei of epitheliocytes in patients with malignant melanoma in comparison with almost healthy women has been shown. At the same time, a decrease in the number of chromatin positive cells (X-chromatin) was found in patients with malignant melanoma compared with that in patients with benign nevi and in controls. An increase in the content of DNA and the size of the interphase nuclei of the buccal epithelium was found in patients with breast cancer. But some authors in cytospectrophotometric detection of the amount of DNA in the epitheliocytes of buccal epithelium in men with bronchial epithelioma did not find a significant difference between this indicator in sick and almost healthy men (Ogden et al. 1990).

## 线性代数作业代写linear algebra代考|MATERIALS AND METHODS

We have studied the control group (29 people), the group of patients with breast cancer of the second stage ( 68 patients) and the group of patients with fibroadenomatosis (33 patients). All diagnoses were verified histologically. The morphological dataset consists of 20,256 images of interphase nuclei of buccal epithelium $(6,752$ nuclei scanned in three variants: without filter, through a yellow filter and through a violet filter).

The morphological materials are smears of epitheliocytes of the oral mucosa from the average depth of the spinous layer, dried at room temperature, fixated in the Nikiforov mixture and Feulgen-stained with cold hydrolysis in $5 \mathrm{n} \mathrm{HCl}$ for 15 min at $\mathrm{t}=21-22^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$. The Feulgen-stained chromatin was analyzed using the Olympus analyzer, consisting of the Olympus BX microscope, Camedia C-5050 digital zoom camera and a computer. On average, every preparation consists of 52 cells in every preparation. The DNA- fuchsine content in the nuclei of the epitheliocytes was computed as a product of the optical density by area. As a result of the first stage of analysis, we obtained images of the chromatin distribution in the form of a matrix containing $128 \times 128$ pixels.

Trying to reflect the fractal character of chromatin distribution and to provide the invariance with respect to rotation of the image, we constructed a space-filling curve (Sagan, 1994) passing through every pixel of an image and sequentially read the RGB values of the colors of the pixels of the scan not line by line. As a result, we can map a matrix of pixels to three vectors corresponding to the three channels of the RGB color model. As a space-filling curve we used the Serpinski curve (Sagan 1994).

## 在这种情况下，如何学好线性代数？如何保证线性代数能获得高分呢？

1.1 mark on book

【重点的误解】划重点不是书上粗体，更不是每个定义，线代概念这么多，很多朋友强迫症似的把每个定义整整齐齐用荧光笔标出来，然后整本书都是重点，那期末怎么复习呀。我认为需要标出的重点为

A. 不懂，或是生涩，或是不熟悉的部分。这点很重要，有的定义浅显，但证明方法很奇怪。我会将晦涩的定义，证明方法标出。在看书时，所有例题将答案遮住，自己做，卡住了就说明不熟悉这个例题的方法，也标出。

B. 老师课上总结或强调的部分。这个没啥好讲的，跟着老师走就对了

C. 你自己做题过程中，发现模糊的知识点

1.2 take note

1.3 understand the relation between definitions